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      History   Geography    People    Economy    Communications    Transportation






  Following World War II, the British withdrew from their mandate of Palestine, and the UN partitioned the area into Arab and Jewish states, an arrangement rejected by the Arabs. Subsequently, the Israelis defeated the Arabs in a series of wars without ending the deep tensions between the two sides.

The territories Israel occupied since the 1967 war are not included in the Israel country profile, unless otherwise noted. On 25 April 1982, Israel withdrew from the Sinai pursuant to the 1979 Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty. In keeping with the framework established at the Madrid Conference in October 1991, bilateral negotiations were conducted between Israel and Palestinian representatives and Syria to achieve a permanent settlement. Israel and Palestinian officials signed on 13 September 1993 a Declaration of Principles (also known as the "Oslo Accords") guiding an interim period of Palestinian self-rule.

Outstanding territorial and other disputes with Jordan were resolved in the 26 October 1994 Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace. In addition, on 25 May 2000, Israel withdrew unilaterally from southern Lebanon, which it had occupied since 1982. In April 2003, US President Bush, working in conjunction with the EU, UN, and Russia - the "Quartet" - took the lead in laying out a roadmap to a final settlement of the conflict by 2005, based on reciprocal steps by the two parties leading to two states, Israel and a democratic Palestine. However, progress toward a permanent status agreement was halted due to  Israeli-Palestinian violence between September 2003 and February 2005.

In the summer of 2005, Israel unilaterally disengaged from the Gaza Strip, evacuating settlers and its military while retaining control over most points of entry into the Gaza Strip. The election of Hamas to head the Palestinian Legislative Council froze relations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority (PA). Ehud Olmert became prime minister in March 2006 and presided over a 34-day conflict with Hizballah in Lebanon in June-August 2006 and a 23-day conflict with Hamas in the Gaza Strip during December 2008 and January 2009. Olmert, who in June 2007 resumed talks with PA President Mahmoud Abbas, resigned in September 2008. Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu formed a coalition in March 2009 following a February 2009 general election. Peace talks are currently stalled.


Geography Top of Page
Location Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Lebanon
Geographic Coordinates 31 30 N, 34 45 E
Area Total: 22,072 sq km
Land: 21,642 sq km
Note: includes only metropolitan France; excludes the overseas administrative divisions
Water: 430 sq km
Area - Comparative slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land Boundaries total: 1,017 km
border countries: Egypt 266 km, Gaza Strip 51 km, Jordan 238 km, Lebanon 79 km, Syria 76 km, West Bank 307 km
Coastline 273 km
Climate temperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert areas
Terrain Negev desert in the south; low coastal plain; central mountains; Jordan Rift Valley
Elevation Extremes lowest point: Dead Sea -408 m
highest point: Har Meron 1,208 m
Natural Resources timber, potash, copper ore, natural gas, phosphate rock, magnesium bromide, clays, sand
Geography Note Lake Tiberias (Sea of Galilee) is an important freshwater source
Natural hazards sandstorms may occur during spring and summer; droughts; periodic earthquakes
People Top of Page


Population 7,353,985
Age Structure 0-14 years: 27.8% (male 1,044,814/female 997,066)
15-64 years: 62.3% (male 2,321,455/female 2,257,301)
65 years and over: 10% (male 320,484/female 412,865) (2010 est.)
Nationality noun: Israeli(s)
adjective: Israeli
Ethnic Groups Jewish 76.4% (of which Israel-born 67.1%, Europe/America-born 22.6%, Africa-born 5.9%, Asia-born 4.2%), non-Jewish 23.6% (mostly Arab) (2004)
Religions Jewish 76.4%, Muslim 16%, Arab Christians 1.7%, other Christian 0.4%, Druze 1.6%, unspecified 3.9% (2004)
Language Hebrew (official), Arabic used officially for Arab minority, English most commonly used foreign language
Urbanization urban population: 92% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 1.7% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
Government Top of Page




Country Name conventional long form: State of Israel
conventional short form: Israel
local long form: Medinat Yisra'el
local short form: Yisra'el
Government Type parliamentary democracy
Capital Jerusalem note: Israel proclaimed Jerusalem as its capital in 1950, but most countriesmaintains their embassies in Tel Aviv
Administrative Divisions 6 districts (mehozot, singular - mehoz); Central, Haifa, Jerusalem, Northern, Southern, Tel Aviv
Independence 14 May 1948 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)
Flag Description white with a blue hexagram (six-pointed linear star) known as the Magen David (Shield of David) centered between two equal horizontal blue bands near the top and bottom edges of the flag; the basic design resembles a Jewish prayer shawl (tallit), which is white with blue stripes; the hexagram as a Jewish symbol dates back to medieval times
Economy Top of Page
Overview Israel has a technologically advanced market economy. It depends on imports of crude oil, grains, raw materials, and military equipment. Despite limited natural resources, Israel has intensively developed its agricultural and industrial sectors over the past 20 years.

Cut diamonds, high-technology equipment, and agricultural products (fruits and vegetables) are the leading exports. Israel usually posts sizable trade deficits, which are covered by large transfer payments from abroad and by foreign loans. Roughly half of the government's external debt is owed to the US, its major source of economic and military aid. Israel's GDP, after contracting slightly in 2001 and 2002 due to the Palestinian conflict and troubles in the high-technology sector, grew about 5% per year from 2004-07.

The global financial crisis of 2008-09 spurred a brief recession in Israel, but the country entered the crisis with solid fundamentals - following years of prudent fiscal policy and a series of liberalizing reforms - and a resilient banking sector, and the economy has shown signs of an early recovery. Following GDP growth of 4% in 2008, Israel's GDP grew by 0.5% in 2009 and is expected to expand in 2010. The global economic downturn affected Israel's economy primarily through reduced demand for Israel's exports in the United States and EU, Israel's top trading partners. Exports account for about 45% of the country's GDP.

The Israeli Government responded to the recession by implementing a modest fiscal stimulus package and an aggressive expansionary monetary policy - including cutting interest rates to record lows, purchasing government bonds, and intervening in the foreign currency market. The Bank of Israel began raising interest rates in the summer of 2009 when inflation rose above the upper end of the Bank's target and the economy began to show signs of recovery.. 

Currency New Israeli shekels
Currency Code ILS


Communications Top of Page
Telephone System general assessment: most highly developed system in the Middle East although not the largest
domestic: good system of coaxial cable and microwave radio relay; all systems are digital; four privately-owned mobile-cellular service providers with countrywide coverage
international: country code - 972;
Internet Country Code .il
Transportation Top of Page
Railways total: 949 km
standard gauge: 28,918 km 1.435-m gauge (14,481 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 167 km 1.000-m gauge (2005)
Roadways total:18,096 km
paved: 18,096 km (including 146km of expressways) (2008)
Ports and Harbors Ashdod, Elat (Eilat), Hadera, Haifa
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